提 要：明代内地佛教、藏传佛教、道教、伊斯兰教、天主教、萨满信仰及民间宗教性活动在宗教生活中角色各不相同，国家宗教政策也因应其差别而有不同。原本来自南亚的佛教虽然深深溶入了中国文化中，但其与经典儒家思想的冲突始终没有平息。明中叶以后，受皇室宗教活动加强的刺激，佛教与儒家的矛盾尖锐起来。这种矛盾促使部分士大夫强烈反对寺院修建并发表辟佛言论。明朝政府对藏传佛教政策与对汉地佛教政策有同有异。其重要差异之一是，明朝对藏传佛教政策与对西部边疆政策紧密相关，而对汉地佛教政策则于周边关系政策基本无关。此外，部分士大夫以藏传佛教为“番教”，认同程度逊于内地佛教。明朝一些皇帝因喇嘛多擅长某些“法术”，对其有特殊兴趣，并因而导致士大夫针对相关政策的批评。道教起源于本土民间信仰，在明代与儒家士大夫的冲突比较和缓。但 明朝 君主中信奉道教者多，既影响到国家政治，也影响到士大夫与君主的关系。士大夫在反复重申儒家原旨的同时，对道教的批评也日趋尖锐。伊斯兰教在社会生活中相对封闭，在明代政策中大体上表现为一个民族政策问题而不是一个宗教问题，基本与国家以及其他社会成分相安无事。明中期以后，天主教再度传入中国，当时士大夫寻求改革，明朝对天主教大致宽容。明代流行对不同宗教兼容并取倾向，民间宗教性信仰、习俗多样而活跃。明朝政府将民间宗教基本看作民俗，一般无干预，对视为 “陋俗”者加以排斥，在涉及秘密社会活动时则严厉禁止。明朝宗教政策之基本精神，一在信仰自由主义，二在保持国家政治世俗性质，三在维持社会稳定和国家对社会的控制。集中体现这些政策精神的仍是儒家政治社会理念并倚赖士大夫群体的努力。其变动因素和矛盾来源，则一在诸教向国家政权机关的渗透，二在皇室特殊化行为，三在民间泛神论多元信仰倾向，四在部分士大夫的信仰综合主义。
关键词：明朝 宗教 政策 社会
Title: A Synthetical Analysis of the Ming Policies toward Religions and Religious Believes
Author: Zhao Yifeng, Professor, Faculty for Asian Civilization Studies, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024
Abstract: During the Ming period, the inland Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, Daoism, Islam, Catholics, and Shamanism and other popular religions played different roles in the social and religious life in China. The state, accordingly, carried different policies toward these religions and religious believes. The Southeast Asian origined Buddhism had deeply rooted into Chinese culture, however, its contradiction with Confucianism was far from resolved. Since the mid Ming period, stimulated by the enhanced religious activities of the royal family, Buddhism confronted sharper contradiction with Confucianism. Some scholar-officials took a strong position against the construction of Buddhist monasteries and Buddhism itself as a general target. The Ming policy to Tibetan Buddhism was similar to that to the inland Buddhism, but with a lot of concerns about the western frontier policies. Some of the Ming Emperors had particular interest to Tibetan Buddhism because that the lamas were usually able to perform mysterious body cultivation things. This caused serious critics from the scholar-officials. With a rather domestic origin, Daoism came across only mild contradiction with Confucian scholar-officials. On the other hand, many emperors of the Ming dynasty believed in Daoism, which affected both the state politics and the relationship between the scholar-officials and the monarch. As a result, scholar-officials delivered severer critics to Daoism. The Islam was rather self-contained in the Ming society as a whole and the Ming government generally treated its relation with Islam as a social group rather than a religious body. After the mid Ming period, Catholic was once again introduced into China. The reform-oriented scholars in that time generally treated the Jesuits with tolerant attitude although isolated contradictions did happen. The elite of the Ming China commonly tolerant different believes and they saw a diversified and active picture of popular religious activities. The Ming government generally treated popular religions as folk customs and usually applied non-action policy toward them. Nevertheless, it did announce forbidden of some religious activities that were viewed as vicious or bad customs and severely banded some secret religious organizations. Under a Synthetical perspective, the Ming policies of religion had three dimensions, namely, general freedom of believes, maintenance of the secular nature of state politics, and keeping social stability and state control of society. It was Confucian politic and social philosophy and the collective efforts of the scholar-gentry that kept the above-mentioned spirit in function. On the other hand, changes and contradictions were resulted by the penetration of religions other than Confucianism to state intuitions, the religious activities of the royal house, the ever growth diversification of popular religious believes, and the synthetic tendency in dealing with issues of believes of some scholar-officials.
Key wards：The Ming dynasty religion state policy society